This article addresses the problem of preserving the identity and historic cultural landscape in small towns in southern Poland. Nowadays, the unique character of those centers is frequently endangered by uncontrolled development and a drive towards modern architectonic and technological solutions. Inhabitants of these small towns, or centers currently reduced to the role of districts, do not always feel or understand the need for preserving the values of their little homelands, even though they bear evidence of a rich past and cultural potential. This work presents a few selected examples of small towns in southern Poland, some of which were degraded to the rank of districts at the beginning of the 20th century. Their landscape and cultural potential have been presented, and attention was drawn to the issue of protecting the historic heritage which has so far survived in the given area. Finally, the identity of selected towns and the sense of a struggle to maintain it have been addressed.